Cyber Security Law as a jurisprudence is constantly evolving. Different countries are coming up with their own national approaches to deal with cyber security. China has been one of the foremost players who has taken the early lead in this direction. China has come up with not just its National Cyber Security Law, but has also now come up with new supplement legal frameworks to protect and preserve cyber security. With effect from 1st of January 2018, China has introduced and implemented its Public Internet Cybersecurity Threat Monitoring and Mitigation Measures, 2018. These represent China’s new Cyber Security Law which has come into effect from the beginning of 2018.

These new measures are representing a new supplemental legal framework on Cybersecurity in China. These measures are of extreme significance and have wide-ranging legal ramifications. What is China’s new Cyber Security Law of 2018? What are its various parameters and salient features? What will be the impact of these measures upon companies operating in China? What are the practical challenges that the new measure throw up? These and other related issues are discussed in detail in my new book “New Cybersecurity Law of China”.


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We all have been hearing much about Blockchain these days. Experts tell us that this new game changing technology is going to change the way we do activities in the digital and mobile ecosystem.

The adoption of Blockchain brings with it a large number of legalities. Various legal, policy and regulatory issues, which the widespread adoption of Blockchain technology brings forth, need to be appropriately addressed.

This Book is a primer on some of the more significant and important legal, policy and regulatory issues concerning Blockchains. This Book aims to be a starting point for discussions, deliberations and analysis by relevant thought leaders on how the varied legal and regulatory challenges facing Blockchain technologies as a whole need to be appropriately addressed.

This Book seeks to look at the legalities concerning Blockchains in various areas of human activities, analyze the liability of Blockchain service providers, and other issues like data privacy and intellectual property rights. The challenges of jurisdiction brought forward by the Blockchain technology presents some interesting facets which require appropriate analysis and deliberations. Number of legalities concerning Blockchains have not yet even been identified.

This Book would give a brief view of the emerging legal landscape that Blockchain stakeholders are likely to face in the coming times, given the radical changes made by Blockchains in various areas of human activities. These changes are further challenging the way principles of legal jurisprudence need to be made applicable in the emerging Blockchain paradigm.

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Cyber Law – An exhaustive section wise Commentary on the Information Technology Act along with Rules, Regulations, Policies, Notifications etc.

Cyber Law – An exhaustive section wise Commentary on the Information Technology Act along with Rules, Regulations, Policies, Notifications etc.

Cyber Law by Pavan Duggal is an exhaustive section-wise commentary on the Information Technology Act, 2000. The book apart from the statutory provisions also lays down the rules, regulations, policies, notifications etc. framed under the Act, thereby making it a ready reference on the subject.

In this second edition, the ratios of all important landmark judgments passed by the constitutional courts in the country, in the interregnum, impacting and giving a shape to this branch of law, have been included and the commentary updated.

The book shall be of great help and an interesting reading for all those interested in this particular branch of law, particularly students, faculties at different law colleges and law universities, law practitioners etc. Read More

Artificial Intelligence Law

Artificial Intelligence Law

Artificial Intelligence is a buzzword that we are beginning to hear with increasing regularity. The news constantly keeps on telling us how advances in Artificial Intelligence are happening at a very rapid pace. Given this, it is but natural to expect that Artificial Intelligence will be an integral part of our day-to-day lives in the next decade and half. In that context, it becomes essential to examine as on current date what are the legal, policy and regulatory issues pertaining to Artificial Intelligence. These are early days when the foundation of the Artificial Intelligence building is currently being built.

This is also a right time where the legal frameworks pertaining to Artificial Intelligence must be evolved and developed at an early stage so as to help enable mankind to not just reap the benefits and advancements of Artificial Intelligence but also to ensure that Artificial Intelligence does not become so intelligent so as to surpass human intelligence in the coming times. In this context, the law pertaining to Artificial Intelligence becomes an important subset of the Cyberlaw umbrella that is constantly evolving.

In this Book, the Author has sought to examine as on date, the various significant legal, policy and regulatory issues pertaining to Artificial Intelligence. The Book tends to ask various questions. The answers of number of these questions are currently not available. However, the Author believes that by raising the important questions and flagging the important issues, the legal jurisprudence pertaining to Artificial Intelligence could be substantially evolved and further developed with the passage of time.

The Book deals with all major and important legal, policy and regulatory issues pertaining to Artificial Intelligence, at the time of writing. As time passes by and as further advances of Artificial Intelligence continue to keep on happening, it is a question of time that more elaborate legal principles and legal frameworks pertaining to Artificial Intelligence need to evolve with the passage of time.

This Book is written for all lawyers, judges, law students, technologists, netizens and lay users of technology who are interested in the legalities pertaining to Artificial Intelligence. This book is of particular relevance directly for all technological experts and relevant stakeholders who are working on various issues pertaining to Artificial Intelligence in their day-to-day activities.

This Book is authored by Pavan Duggal (, Asia’s and India’s foremost expert on Cyberlaw, Cyber Security Law and Mobile Law, who has been acknowledged as one of the top four cyber lawyers of the world. The Author runs his niche law firm Pavan Duggal Associates, Advocates ( which is working on all aspects concerning the intersection of technology and the law.

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India has begun its journey in the direction of becoming a digital cashless economy. India demonetized its currency in the second week of November, 2016 and reiterated its resolve to transform the nation into a cashless economy. India’s demonetization and advent towards the cashless economy has brought forward various Cyberlaw challenges and issues.

This eBook seeks to examine the various Cyberlaw challenges that are faced by India as a nation, as it moves in the direction of transmigrating to a digital cashless economy. This eBook examines various important and significant facets which must be addressed by India as a nation as important priorities, as it prepares to go the cashless economy way.

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Law on Aadhaar

1Law on Aadhaar-3

Law on Aadhaar

When Aadhaar was initiated in the year 2009, it began as an experiment. The experiment was based on collecting the biometric and identity information of individuals and thereby making the same the basis for identifying the identity of an individual.

Given the fact that the Aadhaar ecosystem collects personal identity data in the electronic form, I was fascinated with the legalities surrounding Aadhaar. My work in Cyber law jurisprudence only demonstrated that Aadhaar jurisprudence was one evolving area of the Cyber law jurisprudence. The advent of the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016 has not just clarified a variety of ambiguous issues and legal concerns pertaining to Aadhaar but also has paved the way for making the Aadhaar Number as the legal basis for identifying the identity of an individual.

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Biometric Confidentiality, Security & Indian Law


Biometric Confidentiality, Security & Indian Law

In the year 2009, India started an experiment that was soon become a trailblazer. This was the Indian Aadhaar system or the Indian national biometric identity system. Under the said scheme, India initiated the process of collecting the biometric and demographic information of Indian residents, so that biometric identity consisting random Aadhaar Number could be granted to them.

This biometric identity ecosystem slowly started growing and today, India’s national biometric identity system is the biggest biometric identity system anywhere in the world. Meanwhile, India has come up with the new legal framework to govern the national biometric identity system. Indian legislation has been extremely concerned that biometric information being collected under the national biometric identity system, should be secure, protected as well as confidential. That is the reason why the law has come up with various statutory parameters to protect confidentiality and security of biometric information in India.

This eBook aims to examine the existing legal. For More Click Here